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The Biblical Narrative: Redemption

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BY AUSTIN HESS, Pastoral Intern for Oakwood Presbyterian 

     When we moved to Lewistown, we knew our house would need a lot of work. It had fallen into disrepair through neglect. Paint was peeling off the walls from layers of old wallpaper. Plumbing didn't quite work the way it should have in our bathroom (not to mention clogged for multiple feet). Stairs squeaked louder than a dog's bark. Radiators flaked (probably lead) paint. Old Romex wiring insulation was unraveling in the walls. Junction boxes in the ceilings were coming loose with every turn of the fan blades. Formica countertops—all 24 inches of it —were finding their way into our food. The heat from our oil furnace was shooting through our roof, not to mention baking our 40-year-old shingles that needed to be replaced. For the past year, we had to identify the problems in our house, remedy them and breathe life back into this once quiet and still house.

We're looking for restoration. We recognize that something is horribly wrong with this world because of the way we are hurt by others and we hurt others. However, God did not leave us to wonder about where redemption would come from. He provided a way of redemption for his people through his only begotten Son the Lord Jesus Christ. In this final post, we'll see how the biblical narrative points to redemption as we read Scripture and live in community.

Reading Redemption

Fall Anticipating
     If you read Genesis 3 in the previous post, you'll notice that when God bestowed the covenant curses upon Adam and Eve, he gave them hope:

I will put enmity between you [the serpent] and the woman, and between your offspring and her offspring; he shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise his heel (Genesis 3:15, ESV).

     Many commentators call this verse the first gospel of the Bible. For in this passage, all the way from the fall, we have been anticipating redemption and God has not left us without hope, a purpose, or a plan.

     The person referenced in Genesis 3:15 is none other than Jesus. The one whom we regularly confess is God's only Son, our Lord. He was conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary. He suffered under Pontius Pilate. He was crucified, died, and was buried. He felt the effects of our sin, he experienced misery, all for us—to redeem God's people from their own sin and misery.

     However, He did not stay dead, but on the third day, he arose again from the dead. He ascended into heaven. He sits at the right hand of God the Father from where he will come to judge the living and the dead at the last day.

     The person promised all the way back in Genesis 3—the serpent crusher—fulfilled what was promised by stepping and crushing Satan's head, thereby taking away the power of death. For through his physical death he tasted eternal spiritual death for us, so that through our physical death we may taste eternal spiritual life forever. That's the hope of the gospel.

New Creation
     People have asked me what my favorite passage is in Scripture and I struggle to answer this question because I have so many favorites! Perhaps my most favorite passage can be found in Colossians 1:15-23.[1]

     This passage, a sort of hymn, describes in a poetic fashion the preeminence of Jesus over all things—creation and his people. In this passage, Paul recites how Jesus sustains and holds all things together. But, most importantly, how he has reconciled "all things" to himself—God's people and God's creation.

     Often, when we talk about redemption, we talk about the redemption of souls. This is true, but only a part of the gospel. When you put Jesus' redeeming acts in the context of the whole sweep of the biblical narrative, all the way back to Genesis 1 and 2, you see that His redemptive acts have extended to not just our souls, but to our physical bodies and the entirety of God's creation:

…and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether on earth or in heaven, making peace by the blood of his cross (Colossians 3:15, ESV, emphasis added).

     However, our ultimate goal is not to get back to the Garden of Eden, but to get to the New Jerusalem. Our journey is forward, not backward. For in the New Jerusalem, the possibility of sin will never exist (like in the Garden), and each one of us will have a Garden of Eden to tend —a place where we can cultivate the potential of what God has given us (Revelation 21:9-26).

Already/Not Yet
     The story of the Bible is our story by faith and history. We know that God created all things good, but everything is tainted by sin and misery. We know that Jesus' life, death, resurrection, and ascension accomplished redemption, but we still experience sin and misery.

     Right now, we live in this tension that theologians have called the "already/not yet." Meaning, we enjoy the benefits of a proper relationship with God, but we still look forward to the day when that relationship will be completely unhindered by sin. During this time, we are called to live and fulfill God's original intention for us.

Redeemed Community

     What are we to do now? First, we are called to proclaim the gospel through Word and deed. The same gospel message that awakened you to your own need for repentance is the same gospel message that the world needs. They need to know who God is, who they are, why the world is this way, and how they can be redeemed from their sin and misery.

     The world is hurting and desperately needs to see the hands and feet of Jesus through service. This message can come from the actual sharing of the Gospel, or it can come from meeting needs (Luke 7:36-49).

     Gospel proclamation seems really intimidating—putting yourself out there to share a message of hope that may very well lead to you being rejected and verbally battered. A lot of evangelistic training methods and programs have attempted to help people through this fear by providing words of comfort as well as a framework to fall back on in order to meet objections and ensure a right presentation of the gospel.

     However, increasingly, I think the most radical and effective form of evangelism that we can have in our communities is simply to be hospitable to our neighbors in our communities. Time and time again in Luke's gospel, we see Jesus sitting down and eating and drinking with those whom the religious elite would not dare to associate. Through sharing meals, Jesus would disarm the most sinful and the most skeptical in order to give words of life.

     In the same way, the simple act of having others in your home and sharing a meal with them disarms them by showing the love of Jesus, enabling the reception of his message of hope for the world.[2]

The Narrative

If we're ever lost in reading Scripture, this narrative helps to reorient us in the direction we are to go and situates us to where we are in the story. If we're ever confused by what we're called to do or trying to make sense of what in the world is going on, this narrative gives us context and hope for what's going on and what's to come.

The biblical narrative—Creation, Fall, Redemption—is the basic storyline of the Bible and the storyline we inhabit even today. In this storyline, we see how God has created all things, but the fall subjected them to sin and misery, so God takes steps to redeem his original creation from their sin and misery by bringing it into redemption.

Further Reading

  • Allender, Dan B.: The Healing Path: How the Hurts in Your Past Can Lead You to a More Abundant Life. Colorado Springs, Colorado: WaterBrook Press, 1999. This work guides you through how your past hurts—your sin and misery—can be used to guide your focus on redemption and ministering to others in the midst of their pain. You can also check out Henri Nouwen's briefer work The Wounded Healer.
  • Doriani, Daniel M.: Work. My professor's work on work uses the biblical narrative and the cultural mandate at the beginning of the Bible to give a realistic perspective on its value. You can also check out Tim Keller's book Every Good Endeavor.
  • Forester, Greg: Joy for the World. Greg's book is a bit of a historical analysis of how Christianity lost its cultural influence in the United States and gives specific and practical advice on how to reclaim it (but, not in the ways you expect).
  • Wright, Nicholas Thomas: Surprised by Hope: Rethinking Heaven, the Resurrection, and the Mission of the Church. New York: HarperOne, 2014. One of the most paradigm-shifting ideas I went through revolved around redemption and new creation, and it largely had to do with how I applied the biblical narrative. Wright, in his abbreviated work, guides you through how we got to our worldview, and what the biblical worldview really is.


  1. I'll probably change my mind after this post is published.
  2. One of the best stories out there right now of this "method" of evangelism is found in Rosaria Butterfield's recent work The Gospel Comes with a House Key.

The Biblical Narrative: Fall

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BY AUSTIN HESS, Pastoral Intern for Oakwood Presbyterian 

Biblical Narrative / Genesis 3

     Have you ever messed up? Have I got a story for you!

     In my previous role as an instructional technologist, I had a lot of technical responsibilities. One of those responsibilities was to double-check that everything was working properly before an online course started. This repetitive task became second nature, and it was easy to drone through dozens and dozens of courses at a time, clicking away mindlessly.

     One morning, I got a wake-up call. I received an email that a course had a broken link that needed to be fixed. As I began clicking through the course, which was in its first week of class, I went to click on the link resolver, which just happened to hover right above the “Delete this course” button.

     Guess which one I clicked?

     Panicked, I called my boss and our IT manager to see what could be done to recover the course and student data. I definitely thought I was getting fired for this one.

     Thankfully, none of the students had participated in the course, and we were able to recover all the data. (For whatever reason, to this day, the link resolver still sits above the “Delete this course” button.)

     Because of sin, I had become careless in my work to fix issues. Because of my misery, I suffered emotional distress when I was unsure if we could recover important student data. The Westminster Shorter Catechism (WSC 20) tells us that we all ultimately find the roots of our sin and misery in the fall of our first parents, Adam and Eve, in Genesis 3.[1] This post will explore the fall and how sin and misery impact our reading of Scripture and our life together.

Reading the Fall

     We all like reading about the creation account in Genesis 1-2—heaven and earth were together. But we hate reading about the fall in Genesis 3 where heaven and earth are torn asunder. I mean, it barely took us two chapters before we messed something up in God’s good creation.

     While the details are minimal, at some point after God created all things, Satan and an army of angels rebelled against God and were punished for their sin (cf. Isaiah 14:12-15 to Luke 10:18 and Revelation 12:7-9). As a result, he actively worked to undo the goodness in God’s creation by tempting God’s growing creation to do the very same thing: rebel. He cast doubt in Eve’s heart (Genesis 3:1) and he outright denied God’s Word (Genesis 3:4). Eve ate of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil and gave it to Adam (Genesis 3:6). The one prohibitionary command given by God to them in Genesis 2:16-17 was broken.

     As a result, they are now sinful and experience misery. They hid from God (Genesis 3:7). They “lost communion with God, are under his wrath and curse, and [...] liable to all the miseries of this life, to death itself, and to the pains of hell forever” (WSC 19). God cursed them for their disobedience. Rather than enjoying the covenant blessings of union with God, they suffer under His covenant curses and experience a fractured relationship with Him.

     The final blow was that they could no longer live in the Garden God had created for them. They had to live as exiles in a world that was foreign and hostile to them and attempt to cultivate its potential.

Life in the Fall

     The effects of the fall that Adam and Eve experienced are the same ones we cause today.

     We cause division in our community. Rather than enjoying the union we have with Jesus and thereby with each other, we malign, gossip, hate, and attack each other. We’re drained emotionally, physically, and spiritually. We’re anxious, uncertain, and paralyzed by fear. We work harder and harder, always scrapping by. We rebel against God and his ordained authority, or we’re rebelled against. We follow other gods and leaders, looking for salvation. We experience death, disease, and illness. We see death coming from afar or it visits us quickly. Diseases seem to come at us harder and harder, with more sinister symptoms and longer-lasting effects.

     Because of the fall, we do not experience communion with God and life together as God intended. We’re still wandering, looking for our eternal home. We’re looking for eternal peace and deliverance from our sin and misery.

Where Do We Go from Here?

     This is not the end of the story. Although it’s not an attractive topic, we need to discuss it and think about it. God did not just leave his creation to burn out from all this death and decay.

     As we’ll learn in the final post, God did not leave us to perish in this estate of sin and misery. Rather, as WSC 20 proclaims, God worked “to deliver them [us] out of the estate of sin and misery and to bring them [us] into an estate of salvation by a Redeemer.”

 Resources for Further Study
  • Kapic, Kelly M. Embodied Hope: A Theological Meditation on Pain and Suffering. Downers Grove: IVP Academic, 2017. Written by the professor of theological studies at Covenant College, Kelly explores pain and suffering in the Christian life as he faces his wife’s cancer diagnosis.
  • Plantinga, Cornelius. Not the Way It’s Supposed to Be: A Breviary of Sin. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1995. I cannot think of a better treatment of sin than what Cornelius offers. He helpfully dissects the anatomy of sin and its impact on our life and creation.

[^1]: There is a vast theological debate as to federal headship and the procession of sin. Rather than diving into it in this post, I’m assuming that because Adam is our federal head, when he sinned, we fell with him and sin is transmitted to each and every one of us (WSC 18).